essay writing topics in english for class 10

essay writing topics in english for class 10 1

#English Essay on Discipline

Essay on Discipline: Whether it is the society or the home or the school, discipline is the watchword every where. Men who live in the society need to follow some rules and regulations which help in running life smoothly — this is what is called discipline. For the running of any organisation or institution it is necessary to frame some rules and the primary and essential need to run it well is to follow
those rules. Those who are members of such an organisation or institution also feel a sense of pride that they belong to a disciplined body.

The army, or the police have to be the most disciplined force. When on January 26 at the Republic Day parade in our country how elegant it looks when the army contingent or the police force marches with symmetrical steps. It is only the training in discipline that makes them to move in this manner. For the men of the armed forces the watchword is ‘It’s not to question why it’s but to do or die’. This is the sense of discipline with which our country’s borders and our nations honour are being protected by our army.

On the play field all the players have to follow the rules of the game and they cannot question the authority of the umpire and have to quietly submit to his decision. In the classroom the teacher’s orders have to be obeyed only then can the teaching be conducted properly. You cannot indulge in mutual jokes or make noise while the teacher is teaching. Total attention to what the teacher is teaching calls for discipline. The teacher has also to maintain a certain decorum while teaching. He cannot tell stories instead of teaching the lesson.

But to follow discipline one has to limit and curtail his own liberty. You have the liberty to dress in whatever manner you please but if there is a particular dress prescribed by the school authorities, you have to put on that dress during school hours. While moving on the road the rule of the road is that you move on your left. If this rule is not followed, there would be all confusion and accidents.

In life also there has to be some discipline. Break the rules of nature in food and drink — the result would be ill-health. The family functions on discipline. The child must listen to what the mother and the father say. The brother must have the regard for the brother and the sister. Mutual respect and regard is the discipline of a home.

Therefore, whether it is the social life, whether it is a club or a school or a home — rules have to be followed — and that is discipline. without that there would be all chaos and confusion.

#English Essay on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: “Sanitation is more important than Independence”; these words of Gandhiji have laid the foundation for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Clean India Campaign is one of its kind in the history of India led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on a perfect day of Gandhi Jayanti. On 2 October 201 4, Narendra Modi launched this nationwide campaign that aims to clean up the country in the next five years; for he believes that Gandhiji not only fought for independence but also for a
clean country.

The campaign aims to cover 4041 statutory towns to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. The campaign was launched by the Prime Minister himself by cleaning the roads in Delhi. Its inaugural proved one of the biggest campaigns when millions of students, employees and citizens participated in the event, cleaning various localities. Modi exclaimed “Is cleaning only the responsibility of the karamcharis? Do citizens have no role in this? We have to change this mindset.” He asked all the citizens including celebrities, sports legends and business tycoons to join the campaign.

Modi had invited nine public figures: Mridula Sinha, Sachin Tendulkar, Baba Ramdev, Shashi Tharoor, Anil Ambani, Kamal Hasan, Salman Khan, Priyanka Chopra and Team of Taarak Mehta ka Ooltah Chashmah — to make a contribution towards Swachh Bharat, share the same on social media, and invite nine other people to do the same, hence forming a chain. He has asked people to share their contributions on social media.

He has asked every Indian to spend 100 hours annually in this drive. He has even urged the need to build toilets for proper sanitation. Modi believes that other nations are clean not only because of the efficient clean drive, but because of the joint efforts of citizens too. The citizens over there are aware of their responsibility and thus refrain from littering.

Volunteer actor Ravi Kishan said, “….We always enforce our Fundamental Rights but we never try to carry out our Fundamental Duties. I’m supporting the Clean India campaign because just like our Prime Minister’s concern, I too share the vision of a Clean India, Green India.” Eminent people have come out themselves shouldering the responsibility. HRD Minister Smriti Irani has directed on the use of Corporate Social Responsibility funds for construction of toilets as part of the Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya Campaign.

Modi aims to fulfil the dream of clean India by the 201 9, the 150th birth anniversary of Gandhiji. To check the progress of the campaign, Modi has himself made surprise visits to various offices. His team of ministers too, has contributed by taking up the task of cleaning. Students of Delhi University have decided to study the impact of this campaign thereby suggesting scope for improvement. After the completion of 5 years they will submit the document including success rate, problem and various other studies and findings related to the campaign.

Clean India can inevitably boost the international tourism thereby adding to country’s growth. The campaign has just started, for its success every citizen has to put in efforts. Only then our nation can become a world-class country like European countries. No matter how successfully our economy booms; if the country is not clean at the ground level, the citation of being a developed nation will also not yield result. Modi maintains Indians can do it. If Indians can reach Mars with minimum expense then they can even clean their nation.

#English Essay on Make in India

Essay on Make in India : Mission to Glory
India’s 68th Independence Day gave a new vision to its citizen by its new Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The vision has created a buzz among all the people and sectors alike. The inspiring vision is seen as the new formula for the success Of every individual, every company, and every business. To boost the Indian economy, Prime Minister Narendra Modi coined the term “Make in India”. An initiative to boost manufacturing by easing business processes. It aims at attracting foreign companies to set up factories in India and invest in the country’s infrastructure. In simple terms, Modi is trying to create job opportunities for the huge population.

The mission had its origin in the Prime Minister’s Independence Day speech, inviting global companies to pick India to locate factories, promising to replace hurdles with red-carpet welcomes. Make in India, an international marketing campaigning slogan was officially launched on 25 September, 2014.

The push for manufacturing could not have come at a better time as today, India needs to grow faster to increase the income level. It will create jobs for over million people who join the workforce every year. “We at the Tata Group welcome PM Modi’s Make in India programme. It’s an opportunity to make India truly and globally competitive,” was related by Tata group CEO Cyrus Mistry. The perfect logo of the mission is personified by a lion with a mechanical body. Modi exclaimed that the logo is derived from Ashoka Chakra.

The lion in the logo stands for strength and power while the wheels are a sign Of development and progress. He further said that : “My definition of FDI for the people of India is First Develop India.” While inviting world-class companies to India, Narendra Modi also requested Indian manufacturers not to leave the country and supported that Indian companies too should shine as multinational companies. On this ITC chairman YC Deveshwar said : “The boldness of your vision and the simplicity with which you have communicated it is inspiring.”

For the fruitful start, the new government has laid guidelines for the progress of the project. Some examples are like: reducing the paper work required for establishing companies and minimising the time required for government approvals, abolishing the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from the project cost. Guidelines have been issued for quickening clearances to projects that are approved by state governments.

Policies have been made for the easy transfer of funds while switching jobs anywhere in the country: A dedicated cell has been created to answer queries from business entities through a newly created web portal. These are some mere steps taken while the government, with the help of experts, is trying hard to improve every bit.

Analysts give the reason as to why the mission could prove beneficial for India: contrasting to farming, which employs nearly 50% of population, but contributes just 14% to GDP. The services sector contributes nearly 60% to the economy, but employs just around 27% of workforce. Indian manufacturers are becoming more competitive with respect to their product designs, manufacturing and testing facilities. Additionally, India is the third largest producer of chemicals in Asia and sixth by output, in the world. Through the last four decades, India’s space programme has attracted global attention for its accelerated rate of development.

These few examples support the fact that India has every potential to compete with developed nations. However as a flip side of a coin, there are some challenges too. India’s poor infrastructure and logistics shortfall with inefficient transport networks makes it tough for manufacturing companies to achieve just-in-time production. “The combination of improved transport connectivity and simplified, one point collection of taxation will go a long way in implementing the Prime Minister’s vision of ‘Make in India’,” Deutsche Bank says.

A lot of sectors have been included in the mission some of which are as automobiles, chemicals, construction, ports, railways, space etc. Make in India’s success relies a lot on the fate of the newer companies. But, since its inception, a lot of reputed multinational companies have re-analysed their expansion plans. Narendra Modi is about to give the source, the tool to improve the purchasing power of the common man. The coming together of smart entrepreneurs, employees, infrastructure and know-how could over time become a durable advantage, as had happened in China’s case.

#English Essay on A GOOD CITIZEN

Essay on A GOOD CITIZEN: A citizen is not one who stays in a city. A citizen can even be one who stays in a village or in slums. One who is a member of the society — of whatever status, is a ‘citizen.

As a social being every citizen has his responsibilities towards the society. Every society wants its citizens to be good, and it is the goodness of the citizens which makes the society good.

History tells how during the reign of Chandra Gupta Maurya, people did not need to lock their doors. No thefts would be committed; no robberies ever did occur. May be that it was due to the stern administration and strict policing but it does reflect the nature of the society. All men were law-abiding and law fearing. There was peace and comfort.

Today in the same India, every morning the newspaper’s front page news are there of dacoity, murder, kidnapping, and frauds. This picture of the society reflects the character of the citizens. To what low level have they fallen.

Just as to be healthy, every part of the body has to be healthy and in good condition. Similarly for the society to be good, every citizen has to be well-mannered, honest in his dealings, hard working in his pursuits.

What is meant by being a good citizen? The answer is not far to seek. A good citizen is one who is humble, polite to others, well-mannered, respectful to the feelings Of others. ‘Do not do unto others what you do not want to be done to you’ — this is a mental dictate that governs a good citizen. What hurts you can hurt others too, therefore do not do anything to others which if done to you may hurt you. A society which works on these lines shall have citizens following this rule and that is good citizenship.

Everyone wants to have his personal freedom. But personal freedom does not give one the licence to do whatever one pleases. If you have the right to enjoy personal freedom others also have the right to enjoy the similar freedom. The freedom of one has to be accommodated with the freedom of others. Mutual adjustments alone can bring about peace in the society.

Therefore, a good citizen has always to take care of the interests of others. Neighbourly relations means caring for one another; helping others in the time of their need and be helped by others in your time of need.

It is such a society that everyone wants to live in. But to make the society so liveable every citizen must contribute his ‘goodness’.

#English essay on dowry system

The Evil of Dowry Time to Say No to Dowry: It is well said that marriage in India is not. n union between two people but a union between two families. It does not simply join a man and woman in a marital cord but bonds the families of the two. This makes marriage a very sacred thing in the Indian society and moreover, u very happy occasion. It has become a matter of pride for the people.

However, there are still some age old customs that keep spoiling this happiness and replace pride by greed. The dowry system is one of these issues and has been a great problem and source of embarrassment and disturbance in our society. The system of giving dowry or ‘dahej’ to girls in marriage is an ancient Indian custom. Since ancient times. the parents of the bride have indulged willingly in the practice of giving money and gifts at her Wedding to the groom and his family as a token of love and respect.

The reason for willingly parting away from one’s wealth for their daughter was to give her a comfortable start for her married life. However, shamefully the sad truth is that now-a-days dowry is not given willingly, but is demanded. serious form of the so-called dowry system in India has developed into a full-fledged bargaining business today and has become the main issue about a girl’s marriage whereas all other considerations of much more real value and importance like the girl’s family background, her qualifications, merits, etc„ have altogether been set aside.

The fact that it is condemned by every modern citizen of this country and yet it flourishes at a very large scale in our society is a testimony of how deeply rooted this system is in the Indian society.

This system has become a menace, a social evil in our society. The greediness has come so far Chat now it invites criminal activities. The groom’s family forcefully asks for dowry or threatens to call-off the wedding. It is also observed on a large scale that brides are tortured for dowry even after marriage. And torture is just one part of the story. they are harassed and insulted to the verge Of their committing suicides, and most horrifyingly, they are also murdered for not meeting the dowry demands.

Official statistics show a steady rise in dowry related crimes. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) figures state that 8,233 dowry deaths were reported in 2012 from various states. The statistics work out to one death per hour. This has also led to the poor state of women of India and in a way it has also flared up the favouring of the male child, in turn leading to female foeticide. The time has come to throw this evil practice away from our society. The law has abolished any form of dowry but laws can do nothing if incidents go unreported.

Moreover, parents of girls have to stop treating their daughters as burdens and should not give in when dowry is demanded. They think that it would be shameful and publicly humiliating for them if the marriage gets broken. Further, they think that their daughter would be insulted and not have a happy life in her husband’s home if the dowry demands are not met. In reality, the fact that they must realise is if a man can torture their daughter for money, would he ever care for her?

The answer is no. Young men should take a pledge that they would never ask for dowry. They should show self-respect and make it clear that they can take care of their families on their own. Dowry is like taking alms or payment for some work. Marriage is none of these. It is a union of two souls, two families and must not be marred by dowry. The most effective remedy is to bring consciousness against this malady through education and social awareness.

#English Essay on Social Evils

Essay on Social Evils
social evils are the issues that directly or indirectly affect the members of a society and are considered a point of controversy or a problem in regards to moral values. common social evils include: caste system, poverty, dowry system, gender inequality, illiteracy etc. The social evils and superstitions that dominated the society over the centuries made social reforms imperative for the development of the society and the masses. In the 1 9th century, the newly educated increasingly revolted against the rigid
social conventions and outdated customs. They could no longer tolerate irrational and dehumanising social practices. Moreover, the backward features Of Indian society, such as the caste system or inequality of the sexes had religious sanctions in the past. Therefore, it was necessary to reform religious practices as well.

The condition of women was pathetic. The various religions practices in India as well as the personal laws based on them consigned women to a status inferior to that of men. Polygamy, Purdah system, Sati, Ban on widow remarriage, No education for female child, Female infanticide and Child marriage were some of the evils that had a strong grip over the society. It, thus became necessary to take women out of this degraded position and help her to realise her true potential.

The problems of female foeticide, sexual harassment at work place and their lack of education are still prevalent; these are mainly responsible for marginalised status of women in the sodiety. Futile glorification of Sati practice and role of women confined to the four walls of the house, should be checked to combat evils like dowry system, female foeticide, decline in sex ratio, harassment of women etc. This can be achieved by educating women and making them financially independent. Dowry in India, the practice of endowing gifts to the groom by the bride’s family, is a tradition which changed its meaning from willingly offering gifts to demanding astronomical amounts. It not only puts immense pressure on the parents, but also brings them under the burden of huge debt. The inhumane circumstances created by groom’s family push many girls to resort to suicide or murder.

All these factors together, has only worsened the inequality between the sexes. To overcome these, government had put forward a number of steps for women empowerment like the passing of Women Reservation Bill in Rajya Sabha, laws against female foeticide, Dowry Prohibition Act etc. Our society is facing rapid criminalisation of the polity, which could also be termed as corruption. This could be the result of the fact that criminals have understood the mechanics of the electoral process and have themselves become contenders for power. Earlier, politicians patronised criminals and provided them protection from the law-enforcement agencies in exchange for the use of their muscle power during elections.

And now it is the opposite, with the criminals themselves taking over the reigns of Power to meet their selfish ends and patronising the politicians and their parties. Our freedom fighters and national leaders had set high ethical and moral standards
in public life and they scrupulously followed those principles. This tendency, it is painfully Observed, is now on decline. There has been a wide and critical collapse of moral values in all walks of life which is adversely affecting our global, political and
trade relations, and national economy.

Barring this, the caste system, is another curse in society. Though not so rigidly in urban areas, it is still practices in rural areas with the same degree of rigidness. caste decides marriage, social circle and profession. The untouchables suffer from numerous disabilities and restrictions. Their dress, food, place of residence, all are in degraded state. Not only it is humiliating and inhuman, and against the democratic principle of equality by birth, it is also a cause of social disintegration. It is believed that the 16th century Babri Mosque was destroyed by the members of Hindu nationalist and Bajrang Dal in 1992, resulting in nationwide religious riots. Constitutionally, India is a secular state, but large scale violence have periodically occurred in India since Independence. In recent decades, communal tensions and religion based politics have become more prominent, coinciding with a rise in Islamic terrorism.

A large section of the Indian society is suffering from poverty. Poverty is a phenomenon which is objective as well as subjective. Objectively, poverty implies a dehumanising condition in which people are unable to 100k after their basic needs. Subjectively, poverty stands for perceived deprivation. Poor people lack the necessary resources and capacity to satisfy basic needs like food, shelter, health and education. Around 27 crore people live below the poverty line in India. Poor people live under difficult conditions which are not conducive to development of their human potential. Poverty interferes with development in many ways. For instance lack of or inadequate nutrition arrests mental development during early childhood. A large section of poor children do not go to school. Even if they go, they become drop outs and fail to complete their education.

Apparently, illiteracy is the root cause of all the social issues in our society. It is a hurdle to the social, political and economic growth of the country which keeps people chained to ignorance. Illiteracy leads to over-population which is the basis of all the
existing social problems. Firstly, the illiterate people do not know the value of family planning. They give birth to many children. In some Asian societies, it is very preferable to have a son in the family. They think that their son would be the lord of their property and family name. Secondly, poor people think that if they have a number of children they would earn a lot of money. Therefore, their big family would be beneficial for them. In addition to this, female literacy rate is very low. And when
the female literacy rate is low in a country, then the growth of the country is sluggish because woman’s education impacts every member of the family.

Illiteracy and lack of education give birth to another social evil that is ‘superstition’, which is still prevalent in the Indian society, even in this modern era. Superstitions like, one should not leave home if anyone sneezes or if a cat crosses the path, seeing a one eyed person or a widow early in the morning is sure to bring a bad day, hooting of an owl and the howling of a dog are all signs of ill luck or even death are quite common in our society. Sacrificing animals in the name of ‘offerings to God’, treating natural calamities as ‘weapons of destruction’, the list of superstitions is endless.

Other social issues include lack of proper sanitation wherein statistics provided by UNICEF have shown that only 31 % of India’s population is able to use proper sanitation facilities as of 2008. Another being employment issue. In the rural economy, both unemployment and under-employment exist side by side. Increasing population in rural areas implies immense pressure on land. A general inelasticity of occupational structure prevents any large movement to the other occupations in period of slack demand.

Other issues include female foeticide, female infanticide, drug abuse, prostitution, child labour and child abuse. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru strongly believed, : “It is science alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of insanitation and illiteracy, of superstition and deadening custom and tradition…”

To check all the issues, the first and the foremost step should be to educate people. Government too has taken constructive measures like making primary education free and compulsory for children from 6-14 years and child labour has been banned. ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan‘ is one such initiative. Government has also taken steps to reduce poverty by small farmer’s development programme, drought area development programme, minimum needs programme, assurance on employment and many other developmental schemes. A lot needs to be done to eradicate the shreds of a number of social evils still haunting our society. The citizens should strictly follow the rules as considered in the Constitution and should not perform the nefarious acts
like female foeticide, bride burning, dowry, racism, gender discrimination etc. Youth, which is the strength of our nation, should strengthen the organisations having the agenda to eradicate these social problems in India by spreading awareness and by holding demonstrations. Nothing can be done sufficiently until many people understand the problem and take actions to bring a revolutionary change. Or in Albert Einstein’s words :

“The world is dangerous place to live, not because of the people who are evil
but because of the people who don’t do anything about it. ‘

#English Essay on Caste Based Reservation System in India

Caste Based Reservation System in India: The spirit of equality prevails in the provisions of Constitution of India, as the main aim of founders of the Constitution was to create an egalitarian society wherein social, economic and political justice is prevailed and equality of status and opportunity are made available to all. However, owing to historical and traditional reasons, certain classes of Indian citizens are under severe social and economic disabilities. They cannot effectively enjoy either equality of status or of opportunity.

In ancient India, there was a caste system which existed in Hindu religion. In this caste system. The people were divided into four categories i.e. Brahmi, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. However in those times these were not called castes. Instead, these were termed as Varnas’. During the Vedic period a person’s ‘Varna’ (not. ‘caste’) was clear by his/ her socio-economic duties. These duties were either performed of one’s own accord or were assigned by the local superintendent and ‘Varna’ was originally not clear by one’s birth into any family.

Nevertheless, over the years, as far as anyone of us can remember, caste has been defined by one’s birth. Nobody knows when or where it was decided that the Shudras were the untouchables and did not deserve the respect of the society. It is horrifying to read one of the Hindu scriptures. says that : “The Shudra must not acquire knowledge and it is a sin and a crime to give him education. If the Shudra intentionally listens to, for committing to memory, the Veda (Hindu scriptures of knowledge). then his ears should be filled with molten lead; if he utters the Veda, then his tongue should be cut off”.

One can easily imagine the devastating result such thinking must have had on the life of the Shudras. They became outcasts and suffered all atrocities of the so called upper castes. They were denied the right to make their life comfortable. At the time of independence, the makers of the Constitution had rightly visualised that this deprived section of society needed emancipation through education and employment opportunities. Hence, reservation for the backward classes, scheduled tribes and scheduled castes was essential in order to bring them a par with the others.

It was an attempt to create equality and equity in educational, economic and social areas. There is no doubt that such reservation has actually helped the backward sections of the Indian society, It has helped them to come forward, become a part of the mainstream. claim equal rights and opportunities that they had been denied for ages. But over the years, the reservation system seen to have lost its way.

While providing privileges in the Constitution for a limited period of some years. it was felt that the feeling of casteism would vanish. But even after about seven decades of independence, the reservation based on birth in a particular caste continues, and has rather, widened the caste differences. One may ask if a candidate really needs reservation, in case he belongs to a well-off family and has never in his life experienced any kind of discrimination.

However, a majority of the backward classes are not living any differently than before because their subsistence is meagre and rural lifestyle does not provide them with any of the benefits earmarked for them in the Constitution. The worst thing is that many are not even aware of these policies, especially in the interior parts of the nation. Thus, a distinct economic class system exists within the backward classes.

Mostly. undeserving people have gained the advantages and the deserving ones are still without any significant positive change in their plight. Moreover, reservation has become an electoral tool nowadays. No doubt, the youth of this nation are against such a blind policy where the benefits are not reaching the right people. However, it is also true that discrimination based on caste is still a part of the Indian society.

The policy needs some radical changes. The time has come to identify the sections and more importantly, families of the backward classes that are the ideal and genuine candidates for the reservation system.

article source:- https://edumantra.net/learn-english/6-article-writing-on-caste-based-reservation-system-in-india/

#English Essay on Parents as Friends

ESSAY ON PARENTS AS FRIENDS: In the matter of the overall growth of a child the parental care has a very important part to play. Lack of this care results in children falling a prey to all the social ills that the modern society is wrought with. Neglected at home the growing mind of the child seeks company and companionship. Watching shows on the T. V. which these days, mainly expose crime, and sex, the little child begins to think that this is the way of normal life. All this leaves a very unhealthy effect on the child’s mind.

Where mothers remain busy in kitty parties and fathers busy with the offices or their business, what are children to do ? After spending five to six hours at school, while at home they crave for company. Books cannot engage them for all times. As they step out of the house, there are gangsters and drug-traffickers ready and waiting to catch them as their parents have big money and the children have big pocket money available to them. Servants and ‘ayahs’ are as bad a company for these young rich.

The newspaper reports that a young boy, still in his teens, son of a man in position, goes to his friend in the afternoon, and asks him to come along with him. The friend just says, ‘I’m not feeling well, I would not come’ and in utter disgust this young caller fires a bullet from a pistol which he carries — the bullet fortunately strikes the wall. What does this show? What mental frustration and disgust does this exhibit? This perverted mindset of the young is only because he suffers a neglect at home.

What is needed and is most necessary is that parents should be friends to their children. Even while at work they should keep contacting their children at home on phone, knowing from them what they did at school, how went their day, what is there in the fridge that they should eat; what they were to get from the father or the mother in the evening when they come back home. Such intimate and concerning enquiries even on a phone makes the child feel so good. He thinks that there are his parents caring for him and that is a great satisfaction to the child. He feels a sense of companionship and need not seek it elsewhere.

When back at home in the evening, the father and the mother should spend most of their time with their children, play with them, cut jokes with them; tell stories to them and ask children to tell their stories about how they spend their day at school. Parents need not be overbearing and too sombre — they need to be close and friendly — children may find in them a true companion — a friend — a true confidant. This would provide to the child all the mental food for company which he or she craves for and makes him or her at peace within. Never would he be led to seek company elsewhere. This parental attention is a cure and a tonic to the growing mind in the otherwise, tense and tattered social life in today’s world.

Let the parents awake to this consciousness and act accordingly. That would get rid them of so many problems with their children and relieve children also of unwanted influences.

#English Essay on Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan

Due to the rapid spread of the coronavirus disease, that eventually lead to the COVD-19 pandemic, the year 2020 has been disastrous not just for India, but for every country in the world. And the impact on the economy has been significant, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reports; the global economy is expected to be affected by over 3% in 2020, which is considered to be the most severe slowdown since the 1930s Great Depression.

The situation has been worsening with each passing day, leading to the world’s longest imposed lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. Domestic economic activities have been severely impacted. As a result, it has caused losses to the national economy worth of over Rs 30.3 lakh crore, as per the reports by SBI Ecowrap.

Atmanirbhar Bharat (self-reliant India) is the vision of the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi to establish India as a self-reliant nation. The mention of the ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan’ or ‘Self-Reliant India Mission’ came into existence during the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic related economic package on May 12, 2020. The focal point of the concept is to strengthen the economy, make the country self-reliant in all areas – from manufacturing to supplying, and improve the trade deficit.

The Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan breakdown:

The primary focuses of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, known as the ‘Five pillars’ are:

  • Economy
  • Infrastructure
  • System
  • Vibrant Demography
  • Demand

And the phases of the mission are:

  • Phase-I: Businesses including MSMEs
  • Phase-II: Poor, including migrants and farmers
  • Phase-III: Agriculture
  • Phase-IV: New Horizons of Growth
  • Phase-V: Government Reforms and Enablers

The package has been distributed into four tranches. The distribution has been mentioned as follows,

  • Tranche I: This portion of the fund worth of Rs 5,94,550 crore includes funding and also assures loan for MSMEs, NBFCs/HFCs, contractors, real estate and salaried workers.
  • Tranche II: This portion of the fund worth of Rs 3,10,000 crore is more focused on the poor, which includes migrant workers, farmers and street vendors.
  • Tranche III: This portion of the fund is worth of 1,50,000 crore. The areas of focus are on the agriculture and other sectors such as dairy, animal husbandry and fisheries to strengthen the farming sector as a whole.
  • Tranche IV: This portion worth of Rs 48,100 crore, focuses on the critical sectors such as – Coal, Defense Production, Minerals, Airspace management (ASM), Social Infrastructure Projects, Space sectors, Power distribution companies and Atomic Energy. 

On May 12, the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, announced a special economic package of Rs 20 lakh crore (equivalent to 10% of India’s GDP) intending to make the country independent against the competition in the global market and help empower the poor, labourers and migrants adversely affected by COVID. Following the announcement, the Finance Minister, Ms Nirmala Sitharaman announced the detailed measures under the economic package. Here are some of the highlights,

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: About 67 million MSMEs are being operated in the non-agricultural sectors in India. Hence, a major focus of the schemes was on MSME sector and its development, as it provides substance to a large proportion of the countrymen.

The government will provide businesses (including MSMEs) with collateral-free automatic loans of up to 3 lakh crore rupees to borrowers with up to Rs 25 crore outstanding and Rs 100 crore turnovers. A fund with a corpus of Rs 10,000 crore will be set up for MSMEs which will provide equity funding for MSMEs that have the potential for growth and viability. Approximately Rs 50,000 crore is expected to be leveraged.

The government will facilitate subordinate debt to MSMEs worth of Rs 20,000 crore. Micro and Small Enterprises will be provided Rs 4,000 crore to the Credit Guarantee Fund Trust.

The boost to the MSME sector will be of great benefit to various other industries as well, the automobile sector in particular, as most of the auto companies, are MSMEs.

Energy: The government will provide liquidity support of Rs 90,000 crore to power distribution companies (discoms) and independent power producers.

Moreover, the government is going to invest Rs 50,000 crore on infrastructure development for the evacuation of coal, which includes investment in the mechanised transfer of fuel (conveyor belts) worth Rs 18,000 crore.

Agriculture and allied sectors: The government will provide institutional credit facilities at concessional rates through Kisan Credit Cards to the farmers, which will cover around 2.5 crore farmers with two lakh crore rupees worth of credit.

A fund of 1 lakh crore rupees will be separated for the development of agriculture infrastructure projects. Moreover, an additional Rs 30,000 crore fund will be released as emergency working for farmers, which is expected to benefit more than three crore small and marginal farmers.

Keeping the development of marine and inland fisheries in mind, Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) will be launched for integrated, sustainable, and inclusive growth of the sectors. Around Rs 11,000 crore will be spent on activities in Marine, Inland fisheries and Aquaculture and on top of that Rs 9,000 crore will be spent on developing the infrastructure.

Migrant Workers: By March 2021 under the scheme of One Nation One Card, migrant workers will be able to access the Public Distribution System (Ration) from any Fair Price Shop in India. This scheme is estimated to cover around 67 crore beneficiaries in 23 states (83% of PDS population), by August 2020.

Rs 3,500 crore will be spent for the migrant workers who do not fall under the National Food Security Act ration card or state card. They will be provided 5 kg of grains per person and 1 kg of chana per family per month for two months; an estimated eight crore workers are to expected to be benefited from this.

Civil Aviation: The government will ease the restriction placed on the utilisation of the Indian Air Space to make civilian flying more efficient. This is estimated to enable savings of about Rs 1,000 crore per year for the aviation sector.

Social Sector: Public health is a significant concern of the scheme as well, the investment in public health will be increased, including investment in grass root level health institution of rural and urban areas. Moreover, to create an ecosystem to support universal health coverage in an efficient, safe and timely manner using digital technology, the National Digital Health Blueprint will be implemented.

Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan: Shortcomings and Criticism

However, the package failed to boost the spirit and bring confidence among the corporate. Primarily because the focus of the package is more indirect than direct; as the government should have provided direct financial support rather than relying on loan schemes.

Some have claimed that the movement is nothing but a re-packaged version of the Make in India movement with new taglines like ‘Vocal for Local’. Also, the calls for boycotting Chinese products are practically challenging to put into practice in such a short time period, as nearly $75 billion worth of goods is imported from China every year; some parts of the Indian industry are even dependent on China in some cases.

As the total government expenditure that will be incurred through the scheme is only about 1% of the GDP. In these times of severe crisis, such measures may not be adequate to satisfy the need in the economy.

Conclusion:

The ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan’ seems like an appropriate move by the government of India, as the package itself may not have satisfied all the needs immediately, but it does look promising. It provided millions of citizens of India with hope and some confidence that the government is actively working in tackling these situations rather than sitting idle. Though the implementation of the mission may not be able to fulfil all its agendas, it will surely benefit thousands of poor, migrant workers and farmers along with small and medium business owners with its funding during, especially during these times of crisis.

#English Essay on Narendra Modi

The name “Modi” is undoubtedly a familiar name to every citizen of India. The full name of Prime Minister Modi is Narendra Damodardas Modi. Modi was born in Vadnagar, Mehsana, Bombay State (present-day Gujarat), on September 17th in the year 1950.

He is the current prime minister of India as of 2020, till the next elections which will occur in 2024. Also, he has been a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and has was elected the Chief Minister of Gujarat 3 times each term of 5 years between the years of 2001 to 2014. Also, he is the first PM outside of the Indian National Congress (INC) to win two consecutive terms with a full majority and the second to complete five years in office after Late. Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Early Life of Narendra Modi:

Narendra Modi was one of the six children of Damordas Mulchand Modi and Hiraben Modi, in a Gujarati Hindu family as the third of six children. His teacher has described him as an average student with a keen interest in debate and theatre. He completed his higher secondary education from Vadnagar itself in 1969, received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from the School of Open Learning at the University of Delhi in 1978, and obtained a master’s degree in Political Science from Gujarat University in 1983.

Modi’s initial days have been full of struggle, as a child Modi helped his father at the Vadnagar railway station, and later ran a tea stall with his brother. He was introduced to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) when he was 8 years old. Also during his childhood, his family arranged engagement to a girl, as a traditional custom to his cast, leading to their marriage in their teens. Modi left his home and spent the next two years of his life traveling across Northern and North-eastern India, visiting various Sanatan Ashrams. Later Modi stayed in Ahmedabad and worked with his uncle before he finally became a full-time worker for the RSS (1970-1971).

Narendra Modi: Politics

Modi became an RSS regional organizer in the year 1978, managing RSS activities in the areas of Surat ad Vandodata, in 1979 he went to work for the RSS in Delhi. After his return to Gujarat, he was assigned to the BJP in 1985 by the RSS. And in 1987 his political career began with the BJP, as he helped organize the BJP’s Ahmedabad municipal election campaign, which they won. This accomplishment led to his election for the role of organizing secretary of the BJP Gujarat unit in 1987.

Modi’s hard work and his excellent capabilities led to his rise within the party and was named a member of the National Election Committee of BJP in 1990. He helped organize L.K.Advani’s 1990 Ram ‘Rath Yatra’ and Murli Manohar Joshi’s 1991-1992 ‘Ekta Yatra’ (Journey of Unity). Moreover, Modi’s strategic planning was credited central to the BJP’s state assembly elections victory in 1995. Furthermore, His strategy was considered as the key to the BJP winning in the 1998 elections, later in May of that year, he was promoted to BJP general secretary.

In 2001 as Keshubhai Patel’s health was falling and BJP started losing state assembly seats, the BJP national leadership Modi was chosen as a replacement. Replacing Patel, Modi was sworn as Chief Minister on 7th October 2001 and entered the Gujarat state legislature on 24th February 2002 by winning a by-election to the Rajkot – II constituency.

Modi served as Gujarat’s longest-serving CM of the BJP from 2001 to 2014. After that Modi resigned to become 14th Prime Minister of India, his party member Anandiben Patel became the Gujarat’s first woman chief minister.

During his reign in Gujarat, the Modi-Patel government invested in many development works, supported NGOs and communities in the creation of groundwater-conservation projects. They had built 113,738 check damns, helping recharge the aquifers beneath them. 60 of the 112 tehsils had recovered to their normal levels between the years of 2004 to 2010. It increased the production of genetically modified cotton in the state, making it the largest producing state in India, which lead to Gujarat’s agricultural sector growth at an average rate of 9.6% from 2001 to 2007. The Modi government brought the ‘Jyotigram Yojana’ scheme for the farmers, in which the agricultural electricity was separated from other rural electricity, to reduce the agricultural electricity cost

Prime Minister Narendra Modi: With a demonstrated history as a capable leader and a promising member of the party, Modi was declared as BJP’s candidate for Prime Minister in the 2014 Lok Sabha election.

Modi got the highest votes in the 2014 elections and was announced as the 14th Prime Minister on 26th May 2014. As a leader, Modi has appeared to be a progressive, decisive, and development-oriented. The Modi government got rid of about 1200 obsolete laws in the first 3 years as PM, a total of 1.301 such laws had been repealed by the previous governments over 64 years time span. He started a monthly radio show called “Mann Ki Baat” to share his views and thoughts on current affairs. He was again sworn in as the Prime Minister of India on 30th May 2019.

The Modi government has contributed majorly to the digital movement in India with initiatives such as ‘Digital India’, ‘Make in India’ and ‘Skill India’ programmes. It has resulted in a significant boost in the number of active internet users in India; moreover, it has presented the citizens with multiple opportunities in terms of education, career and entertainment. The ‘Make in India’ is a programme initiated by the Modi government in 2014 with the goal of transforming India into a global manufacturing hub. It has opened doors for investors, and multiple enterprises have adopted this mantra.

The government has taken many such initiatives in various sectors for the betterment of the country as a whole; some of them are – ‘Ujjwala scheme’ to provide free LPG connection to rural households, ‘Stand Up India’ Scheme to provide bank loans between 10 Lakh and one crore to at least one Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe borrower and at least one Woman borrower for setting up Greenfield enterprises per bank branch, ‘Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana’ to provide loans up to 10 Lakhs to increase the confidence of the youth, educated or skilled workers aspiring to be entrepreneurs, etc. More noticeable actions from the Modi government include the Demonetization of the 500 and 1000 Rupees notes, the introduction of GST tax, efforts of bringing more foreign investments.

Conclusion:

Therefore we can conclude that Mr. Narendra Modi has proven himself to be a capable leader both as a CM and as the PM. The Modi government has been seen to be more aggressive, innovative, and result-oriented than the previous governments. Modi, as a person has earned the trust and recognition of millions across the globe and taken various initiatives to establish himself among the great leaders of the world. We sincerely wish that the initiatives are taken by the Modi government turn out to be fruitful and lead India to its peak of success as a nation.

#English Essay on Safety of Women in India

India is known all over the world for its great tradition and culture, where women are worshipped in the form of Sati, Savitri, Durga, and Lakshmi. But if we take a glance behind the curtains, the story is totally different. Indian women work in all fields like politics, banks, sports, schools, businesses, army, and many more. Due to this greater exposure of women in every field, the cases of violence against women has increased by many folds.

Women were previously restricted to corners of the house, but after globalization, the patriarchal mindset of society has changed to some extent but not to the level it was supposed to. Mindset of the people is somewhere still the same that treats males as superior to females and always tries to dominate the womenfolk. Male-dominated society uses different tools to prove their domination over the female, including domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, acid attack, teasing, etc.

Many women are identified to be harassed, molested, assaulted, and violated every day at various places all over the country. According to a survey, around 80% of women have fear regarding their safety, and that’s why it is a prime concern in India. Women Safety is the practice and policy that aims to reduce gender-based violence and uplift women’s status in society. They cover almost 48% of the country’s total population, and they are a half participant in India’s growth and development.

We are running in an advanced era of the 21st century, and it is very shameful to say that women are not feeling safe in our nation. According to the reports of the “National Crime Records Bureau,” crime against women has shown an exponential rise in the last few years, so the safety of women has become a burning topic that should be discussed and solved.

Crime Against Women in India:

Crime against women in India refers to sexual or physical abuse committed against women by their husbands, friends, relatives, or strangers. There is a big list of the activities mentioned above in India, such as an acid attack, child marriage, domestic violence, gender inequality, dowry death, female infanticide, trafficking, forced prostitution, female foeticide, etc. According to an International survey report, India is the fourth most dangerous country for women in the world.

Researches reveal that violence against women begins at home at an early age, especially in a rural area by family members. In recent decades, a sharp number of crimes have registered under ‘cruelty by husband and his relatives.’ Married women in India are subjected to violence as a routine part of their married life, and many such violence remains unreported due to certain Indian norms and cultural beliefs.

A Girl child is taught to be tolerant, and they have an immense pressure of not damaging the family’s honour. They feel violence at the child’s age in the form of gender inequality, such as the right to education, proper diet, or decision making of their life. 65% of Indian men believe that women should tolerate violence to keep the family together.

Acid attacks and rape cases are the two most dreadful crimes prevailing in Indian society, and it is found that a woman is raped every 20 minutes in India. Indian women are at high risk of being an acid attack victim compared to women of other countries. Nirbhaya rape case, Unnao rape case, Laxmi Agarwal acid attack case are some of the heart trembling misdeeds against women.

According to the statistics of the National Crime Record Bureau, the highest rate of crime against women were recorded in Chennai in 2000. However, the crime rate fell largely by 2013 in Chennai. It was just opposite in the capital city of India, Delhi. The crime rate against women in Delhi was 17.6 out of 100,000 females in 2000, which rose by 151.13 out of 100,000 females in 2013. Although, the government of India is coming forward with new laws and policies against those crimes. Let’s discuss some of the amendments implemented by the government for the upliftment of women in India.

Safety Laws of the Government of India:

The government of India is committed to eliminating violence against women through various policies, laws, and programs. Many councils and their partners are rigorously working on the strategies and services to be implemented in every part of the country. There is a list of safety laws for women in India from all types of crimes against women. Some of those safety laws include Child Marriage Act 1929, Widows Remarriage Act 1856, Dowry Prohibition Act 1961, Foreign Marriage Act 1969, Equal Remuneration Act 1976, Muslim Women Act 1986, National Commission for Women Act 1990, Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005, Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act 2013, Triple Talaq Act 2019 and many more.

The Indian government is emphasizing on women’s empowerment to control the crime rates against women. Here are some schemes that work on the prohibition of violence against women.

  • The prime minister, Narendra Modi, launched a scheme in 2015 for girls named “Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao” to save and educate the girl child. It aims to bridge the gap between boys’ birth and improve the efficiency of welfare services for girls in India.
  • One-Stop Centre Scheme, popularly known as ‘Sakhi’, was implemented on 1st April 2015 for providing shelter, police desk, medication, and counselling seminars for the victim.
  • The Support to Training and Employment Programme (STEP) aims to provide opportunities, skills, and employment to the women. It enables the woman to become self-dependent and confident.
  • The Swadhar Greh Scheme was launched by the Union Ministry of Women and Child Development in 2002. It provides rehabilitation to marginalized women such as deserted widows and victims to extremist violence.
  • A Working Women Hostel Scheme was launched to promote safe accommodation for women who work far from their homes

Many other acts like #metoo and #time’s Up has also helped to raise the voice of silent victims and gained social attention against discrimination and violence against women. Apart from these government policies, women should step forward for their personal safety girls should be trained for self-defence and physical fitness from their childhood.

Tips for women’s safety in India:

Safety of women matters a lot, whether at home, outside the home or workplaces. According to the report, it is found that every 2 out of 3 women have suffered around two to five times sexual harassment every year. In India, a woman is the symbol of ultimate power called ‘Devi-shakti’, and now the time has come to take the one’s safety in your hand. Women have to come forward first for their personal safety. They have to inbuilt confidence and feel empowered to protect themselves in any situation. And here is a list of measures that should be taken for the personal safety of women as mentioned below:

  • Self-defence techniques are the first and foremost that every woman must be aware of. They must get some proper self-defence training and technical like kicks to the groin, blocking the punch, hitting hard on eyes, etc.
  • Escape and run is a good way to reduce the risk of mishappening. Never feel ashamed to shout and gather a crowd. It will help to escape from dangerous situations.
  • Women should never feel physically weak than men because confidence can help inbuilt the power to fight for themselves. An incident in Bareilly, a girl managed to escape from a gang of boys using her physical strength and techniques.
  • Paper spray and knife can also be used to threaten and run away from the danger zone.
  • Women must have all the emergency numbers with them, and they should immediately ask for help from their family members and police.
  • They should also be alert while communicating with someone on the internet as cyber abuse is a serious concern in this technological world. It is reported that 412 complaints of cyber abuse have been filed between March and April under this lockdown period of COVID-19.
  • Women should be very cautious while driving the car or any other vehicle. They must lock the car doors while travelling and always wear a helmet while driving scooters and bikes.

Conclusion
In the past few years, the safety of women in India has been declined because of continuous crime against women. Women’s safety is a big social issue that needs to be solved as it inhibits the country’s development. According to the constitution of India, Women have equal rights of freedom and dignity as men, and they contribute equally to the growth of the nation. They are joining almost all the high posts and offices like the President, Lok Sabha speaker, Union Ministry, Chief Ministers, Governor, defence team, etc.


Despite the formation of various rules and regulations by India’s government, the number of crimes against women is increasing exponentially. Women’s status in the country has been terrific and offensive in the past few years. It has also decreased the confidence levels of women and hurting them mentally, physically, and socially. It’s also true that only the government should not be blamed because the safety of women is not the responsibility of the government only. Every citizen of India, especially men, should take responsibility, and there is a need to change the mindset for women.

#English Essay on Coronavirus

The COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), a part of the coronavirus family. ‘Co’ stands for Corona, ‘Vi’ stands for Virus, and ‘D’ stands for disease, and ’19’ refers to the year 2019. It was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December of 2019.

With more than 23.4 million confirmed cases, the rapid spread of the virus has resulted in an ongoing pandemic world-wide. The infection cases have spread across 213 countries and territories and have resulted in more than 808 thousand deaths globally, as per reports.

What is COVID-19?

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originates from the novel coronavirus, which was first identified in Wuhan, China. It was formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-nCoV.’

The coronavirus family can cause a wide range of illnesses. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), it can cause health issues ranging from a mild cold to more severe diseases such as – severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

Several coronaviruses are circulating in animals, and some can be transmitted between animals and humans. Though, a number of these do not infect humans. It is the new COVID-19 that affects humans.

Where did COVID-19 came from?

Though most scientists have pointed towards bats and snakes as possible sources, the actual source remains unknown. As per the Chinese reports, it is thought to have originated from a seafood market somewhere in Wuhan, China, where wildlife was sold illegally or illegally trafficked pangolins.

How does the COVID-19 spread?

The virus can transmit through direct contact with an infected person’s respiratory droplets, commonly generated while sneezing or coughing. The COVID-19 can survive for several hours on surfaces, so touching such surfaces contaminated with the virus can also contribute to the virus’s spread.

What are the symptoms of coronavirus?

Symptoms of the infection can be similar to that of common fever, such as – fever, coughing, and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, it may cause pneumonia, severe respiratory problems, multiple organ failure, and even death. Though, the cases of the infection being fatal are rare.

However, the infection is contagious and asymptomatic, which means the infection can spread even before the symptoms are identified. It is one of the major reasons for its rapid wide-spread. The incubation period is said to be as much as two weeks. As the symptoms are similar to that of influenza (flu) or the common cold, which are very common, it becomes essential for people with similar symptoms to get tested for COVID-19 as soon as possible.

COVID-19 prevention

The infection, transmission of COVID-19 can be prevented and slowed down by maintaining some basic precautions. Such as –

  • Washing hands regularly with soap and water or, clean them using some alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Cover your mouth and nose while coughing, using tissues. While coughing, cover your mouth with a flexed elbow to reduce the chances of others being affected.
  • Avoid close contact with any person who shows the symptoms of a cold or flu. Maintain at least one-meter distance from such people.
  • In case of fever or any of the infection symptoms, immediately seek medical health, and stay at home. Restrain from public gathering, traveling, etc. if not necessary. Moreover, smoking or other activities that weaken the lung should be avoided.

Cure and vaccines

Researchers around the world are working tirelessly to find a vaccine against the COVID-19. However, the experts have estimated that with a fast-tracked process, the vaccine development can be successful in about 12-18 months of time.

As of now, there has been only one coronavirus vaccine, which is the Sputnik V – formerly known as Gam-COVID-Vac. It has been approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Though, it’s yet to clear all the required clinical trials.

Conclusion – COVID-19

Hence we can conclude that the infections caused by the coronavirus family and the COVID-19 are not severe in most cases and do not cause any fatal damage. However, we must not overlook its impacts. The reason for its rapid spread across the world has been the lack of cautiousness and proper preventive measures in due time. And as a result of that, we are facing perhaps the worst pandemic of our lifetime. As there is no official medical cure for COVID-19, prevention is the only way to end the rising number of deaths globally. We must all be responsible and take all the necessary steps to stop or slow the transmission. With sincere, united efforts, we shall overcome these difficult times and bring things back to their respective order.

#English Essay on Lockdown

The world was running at its highest pace, then came the monster Corona Virus, which turned the lives of over a million people upside-down. The first human case of COVID-19 was noticed in Wuhan (China), and by time, around 213 countries are being affected due to coronavirus COVID-19. The world health organization (WHO) declared this new outbreak a pandemic.

The first case of COVID-19 in India was identified on January 30, 2020. Currently, India has the highest number of confirmed cases in the Asia continent and the world’s third-highest cases after the USA and Brazil. According to Doctors and Scientists, COVID-19 can spread from person to person through the droplets from nose or mouth. When a person coughs or exhales, these droplets land on their nearby objects and surfaces, and the virus catches another person if they come in contact with those surfaces. In-short, the transmission of coronavirus, which leads to COVID-19, is only possible when a person interacts or comes close to an infected patient at their workplace, markets, store, or anywhere else.

So, to break the chain of person to person transmission, we were left with the only option of avoiding our interactions with others. In the beginning, 1.3 billion population of India were addressed by the Honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi to stay at home for one day as “Janta Curfew” on March 22. It was the first step taken by our government to fight against this virus. Gradually it turned into an epidemic, and due to a sudden increase in the number of cases, the whole countrymen were restricted to stay at home. It was termed as complete lockdown when the entire nation was locked in their houses. Schools, colleges, offices, industries, malls, everything was shut down from March 25. The world started shivering with the fear of corona. India witnessed lockdown in different phases:

  • Phase 1(21 days)- March 25 to April 14.
  • Phase 2(19 days)- April 15 to May 3.
  • Phase 3(14 days)- May 4 to May 17.
  • Phase 4(14 days)- May 18 to May 31

Impacts of Lockdown

COVID-19 is a global pandemic, and social distancing is a key point of prevention from the communal spread of this disease. It has pushed us into a situation of lockdown and self-Quarantine, which has adversely affected the world’s economy. Many countries are under a financial crisis. India’s GDP growth is 1.9% in 2020-21, and our country can face the worst economic growth rate in the coming year. The informal sector comprises the major assets in India’s economy and employs almost 94% of the population. The complete lockdown situation has shut down all the factories and industries, which has created a serious problem of unemployment and poverty. The scarcity of work causes the migration of daily wage workers to their villages.

The hospitality sector has faced huge losses in the last few months as people avoided going out in hotels and restaurants. Interstate and international transportation were blocked entirely, so airline companies are also under loss. Tourism, Automobile, import, and export services are severely affected during this lockdown. According to report data, five lakhs of people have lost their job, and around 20 lakhs of jobs are under high risk. These are the dark side of the lockdown in people’s lives and the economy of India.

Besides the losses, the lockdown has many positive impacts too. Though the industrial activity is down, the economy is facing losses, but we should also look into the positive aspects. After humans’ interaction with nature has restricted due to this lockdown, it resulted in a blessing for nature. The decrement in pollution due to factories and traffics on the road has improved the air quality and purified water bodies.

NAQI has observed that 40% to 50% of air quality was improved just after the five days of commencement of lockdown. The pollution level of many rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari, etc. have decreased with an increase in the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) value of water resources. Even the water of Ganga located at the bank of Haridwar and Rishikesh was reported as suitable for drinking. Wildlife habitats are also blooming in a hygienic environment. This pandemic has taught humankind how we can reorganize our living style to preserve the precious gift of nature.

Lockdown Experience

Under this lockdown, we realized that nature could heal itself if we do not interfere. In-fact everyone was busy with their office works, colleges, and schools until the lockdown was declared. And often, many of us wish to have free time to develop the skills of our choices and follow our passion and hobbies. We always wanted to spend some quality time with family. We used to make fun of not having college and rest at home all the time, like idle.

Although the condition was most unlikely, but all our wishes come true at a time.

Everyone would have to spend their lockdown period with different experiences. I would also like to share some of my personal experiences of lockdown. I remember, When the government had declared holidays in schools and colleges, I pack my bag and rushed to my home. I spent the initial days of my holiday in a very chill mood as like there was no college, no study ever. I love drawing and photography, but I had to shun my hobbies due to a shortage of time. I enjoyed my passion and used to draw at least once a day under this lockdown. I started gardening and also tried my hand in cooking. Though I had never worked in the kitchen before, but I followed new cooking recipes and surprised everyone with tasty & flavored foods. After completing the 10th standard, I was parted away from my family and shifted to a new city for my higher studies. Under this COVID-19 situation, I spent the best hours with my family after a very long time.

The lockdown was soon extending one after the other as corona cases were increasing at a high pace. So, the college began with its online classes, and teachers also started sending assignments as they have to compete with each other. After a few days of fun and enjoyment, I realized that I must utilize my free time to explore new things in constructive ways. Therefore, I started a course of my choice, coding, and participated in online coding competition on different platforms. Moreover, I learned about so many things that I always wanted to know, but due to lack of time, I never have gone through them before.

Conclusion

Though this pandemic is life-threatening to humans but apparently it has taught us a lot. We have learned a new way of living and realized the importance of family, nature, and work. There is no proven cure for COVID-19 to date. Moreover, the medical sector is trying its best to control this pandemic, and scientists are working day and night tirelessly over the vaccine of coronavirus. Countries like Russia and Israel have claimed to make their first vaccine against COVID-19. The actual scenario is that until mass production and distribution are available at all the stages, we have to be very careful and concerned about our health. We should avoid going out for no reason and take a healthy diet to inbuilt a strong immune system. At last, stay at home, take care of your near and dears, and always stay positive.

#English Essay on Unemployment in India

Unemployment has always been one of the hot topics in Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s oratorical addresses. The mounting rate of joblessness in the country only acts as an obstacle to the path of development.

A densely populated country, India is home to the world’s second largest population. The rate of population growth far exceeds the rate of job creation. Increasing population often lead to this problem as the economy does not always grow immediately to absorb the entire population.

Another reason as to why unemployment strives in the country is the advancement in technology. Post industrialisation in the country, some key work areas that were earlier reserved for humans have become machine run. Thus, the growth in technology leading to evolution of newer and better machines has, displaced people from their jobs.

And lastly, the Charles Darwin’s theory “Survival of the fittest” can best describe the unemployment scene in India, where skilled labour, to meet the requirements (both technical and non- technical) of the job, is less. Unskilled or semi-skilled labour dominates the Indian market, which faces a dearth of-an educated or professionally and academically qualified class, adept at computers and public speaking. Also, because of lack of these skills. people often end up accepting those jobs that do not satisfy them.

To combat the menace of unemployment, India need measures to keep its population growth in check. People should be made aware of the benefits of a small size family. Also, people need to be educated about the various measures to control child-birth. This is the most important aspect as the state can not create jobs for everyone, therefore the rate of population growth must be slowed down. Secondly, we need a pool of skilled and talented labour fora For this. we must strive to achieve complete literacy. Also, the education system of our country should be made need based. More professional and vocational courses should be introduced.

These days, every person desires an office job. Even agriculture graduates and school drop outs want office jobs in cities. For this, more institutions of higher education should he set-up and the education system of our country should be made job oriented, going beyond the regular BAs, MAs and PhD’s. And lastly, what is needed here is a change in the attitude of people.

As most of them are service-minded, they do not want to take risks. It is not possible for government to give jobs to all. A desire for doing something of one’s own may solve, to some extent, the problem of employment and unemployment for both the educated and uneducated people. However, for the last few years, the centre has taken steps to combat and reduce unemployment by implementing many `Rozgar’ schemes in small towns and villages to absorb unskilled semi-skilled labourers like Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Act, etc.

Also, the state should encourage those with the idea of starting own business by providing low interest rate loans and tax exemptions etc. Still, a. lot depends on us too, to check unemployment by taking measures listed above to deal with it.